The Moon and Sun Letters (حُرُوفُ القَمَرٍِيَّة و الشَّمسِيَّة)

The Arabic letter is divided into two equal groups namely Moon letters – (حُرُوفُ الْقَمَرِِيَّة)and Sun letters – (حُرُوفُ الشَّمْسِيَّة) shown as follows:

Moon letters – Huruf Qamariyyah

(حُرُوفُ القَمَرِيَّة)

Sun letters – Huruf Shamsiyyah

(حُرُوفُ الشَّمْسِيَّة)

أ ت
ب ث
ج د
ح ذ
خ ر
ع ز
غ س
ف ش
ق ص
ك ض
م ط
ه ظ
و ن
ى ل

The Definite Article – Laam Taarif(لاَم التَّعرِيف)

Laam Taarif(لاَم التَّعْرِيف) is a definite article in Arabic [ٱل] that translates to “The” in English. Previously, in the discussion of the connecting hamzah – hamzatul wasl [ٱ], we understood that the hamzatul wasl [ٱ] in laam Taarif [ٱل] is always read with fathah [َ] at the beginning of an ayah or after a stop. But in all cases in the middle of an ayah hamzatul wasl [ٱ] is dropped.

Another layer to this rule in Tajweed is what we do when laam Taarif [ٱل] if followed by a noun that starts with a moon or sun letter. This means that the writing and reading of laam Taarif [ٱل] depends on if the word it is attached to is a moon or sun letter.

Clear Moon – Idhaar Qamariy(إِظْْهَار قَمَرِيّ)

When laam Taarif [ٱلْ] is followed by a noun that starts with any of the 14 Moon letters – Huruf Qamariyyah(حُرُوفُ الْقَمَرٍِيَّة), the [ل] in laam Taarif [ٱل] is clearly written with a sukoon and clearly read with the sukoon both at the beginning of an ayah and after a stop as well as in the middle of an ayah. The rule of the connecting hamzah – hamzatul wasl [ٱ] equally applies at the same time as explained above. In Tajweed rule the [ل ] in this case is called Clear Laam- Laam Qamariy(لاَمِْ قَمَرِيّ) and the rule is called Clear Moon – Idhaar Qamariy (إِظْهَار قَمَرِيّ).

Example 1:

Clear Laam- Laam Qamariy

(لاَمِْ قَمَرِيّ)

in the noun beginning an ayah

or after a stop.

Read as

ٱلْحَمْدُ اَلْحَمْدُ
ٱلْكِتَابُ اَلْكِتَابُ
ٱلْأَرْضِ اَلْأَرْضِ
ٱلْعَظِيمُ اَلْعَظِيمُ

Example 2:

Clear Laam- Laam Qamariy

(لاَمِْ قَمَرِيّ)

in the noun in the middle of an ayah

hamzatul wasl [ٱ] is dropped and

Read as

وَٱلْحَمْدُ وَلْحَمْدُ
وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِٱلْمُهْتَدِينَ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بلْمُهْتَدِينَ
خَلَقَ ٱلْمَوْتَ خَلَقَ لْمَوْتَ
فَلَا تُطِعِ ٱلْمُكَذِّبِينَ فَلَا تُطِعِلْمُكَذِّبِينَ

Merged Sun – Idghaam Shamsiy(إِدْغَام شَّمْسِيَّ)

When laam Taarif [ٱل] is followed by a noun that starts with any of the 14 Sun letters – Huruf Shamsiyyah(الشَّمْسِيّة حُرُوف), The [ل] in laam Taarif [ٱل] does not carry a sukoon [ْ] in this case the Sun letter – Huruf Shamsiyyah after the [ل] carries a shaddah [ّ] which shows that merging- idghaam has occurred. Merging- idghaam occurs when two letters merge into one, the letter that the two merges into then carries a shaddah [ّ]. In other words, you drop the [ل] in pronunciation and double the letter after it.This rule applies both at the beginning of an ayah and after a stop as well as in the middle of an ayah. The rule of the connecting hamzah – hamzatul wasl [ٱ] equally applies at the same time as explained above. In Tajweed rule, the [ل] in this case is called Merged Laam- Laam Shamsiy(لاَمْ شَّمْسِيَّ) and the rule is called Merged Sun – Idghaam Shamsiy(إِدْغَام شَّمْسِيَّ)

Example 1:

Merged Laam- Laam Shamsiy

(لاَمْ شّمْسِيَّ)

in the noun beginning an ayah

or after a stop

Laam -[ل]is dropped

and read as

ٱلتَّوَّابُ اَتَّوَّابُ
ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ اَسَّمَاوَاتِ
ٱلزَّيْتُونِ اَزَّيْتُونِ
ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ اَرَّحْمَـٰنِ

Example 2:

Merged Laam- Laam Shamsiy

(لاَمْ شّمْسِيَّ)

in the noun in the middle of an ayah

Laam [ل] and hamzatul wasl [ٱ]

is dropped and Read as

لَمِنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ لَمِنَصَّـٰلِحِينَ
مِنَ ٱلظََّـٰلِمِينَ مِنَظََّـٰلِمِينَ
لَكُمُ ٱلشَّمْسَ لَكُمُشَّمْسَ
مِنَ ٱلرَِِّجَالِ مِنَرَِِّجَالِ

Posts in the series....

  1. The Moon and Sun Letters (حُرُوفُ القَمَرٍِيَّة و الشَّمسِيَّة)
  2. Hamzatul Wasl – Connecting Hamzah [ ٱ ]
  3. Tafkheem and Tarqeeq
  4. Prostration of Recitation
  5. Saying the Name of Allah (Al-Basmalah)
  6. Seeking refuge with Allah (Al-Istiaadha)
  7. Sifaat associated with each of the Arabic letters.
  8. Explanation of the Sifaat (Characteritistic) of the Arabic letters
  9. Sifaat – Characteristics of the Arabic letters
  10. Exact point of articulation of the Arabic letters
  11. The 17 Specific Makhraj
  12. The five points of articulation
  13. Tajweed - Introduction
  14. Tajweed ul Quran, So far so good
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Hamzatul Wasl – Connecting Hamzah [ ٱ ]

Hamzatul wasl [ٱ] or connecting Hamzah is a little head of the letter saad [ص] sitting upon an alif [ا] at the beginning of a word, either in the beginning of an ayah or in the middle of an ayah. The purpose of the hamzatul wasl [ٱ] is to connect a saakin letter that starts a word. Normally it is not possible to start a word with Sukoon [ْ ], hence the introduction of hamzatul wasl [ٱ], which will then assume a vowel or harakah that connects to the saakin letter.
When hamzatul wasl [ٱ] starts a word in the in the middle of an ayah or when continuing a recitation without stopping, the hamzatul wasl [ٱ] is dropped without pronouncing it at all, the vowelled letter or letter with harakah before the hamzatul wasl [ٱ] then connects to the saakin letter after it. At the beginning of an ayah or after stopping during recitation, hamzatul wasl [ٱ] will assume a vowel or harakah depending on certain rules as outlined.

Continue reading “Hamzatul Wasl – Connecting Hamzah [ ٱ ]”

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Tafkheem and Tarqeeq

اَلتَّفْخِيمُ (Tafkheem) – Heavy letters

These are letters with the quality of Elevation (Al-Istia’la)الأستعلاءwhen articulated from the correct Makhraj or point of articulation as explained in the section Makhraj and Sifaat. The heavy letters retains the quality of heaviness either with long or short vowels. There are seven heavy letters namely. خص ضغط قظ Out of these seven letters, four are heaviest because they have additional quality of Closing (Al-Itibaaq)الأطباق, these letters are ظ ط ص ض . The level of heaviness is also determined by the harakah accompanying it, the first one being the heaviest as follows:

  1. The letter is heaviest when accompanied with fathah [ َ] followed my alif [ا ]e.g: خَلِدِينَ
  2. When it is accompanied with Fathah [ َ] only e.g :قَدَّرَ
  3. When it is accompanied with dammah [ ُ] eg:اَلْقُرْآنُ
  4. When it is accompanied with Sukoon [ ْ] eg:إِخْرَاجُ
  5. The least heavy is the one accompanied with Kasrah [ ِ] e.g:طِبَاقَا

اَلتَّرْقِيقُ (Tarqeeq) – light letters

These are the letters with the quality of lowness as opposed to elevation. It means all the letters not listed as Tafkheem is Tarqeeq with the exception of ل and ر which alternates between either of the characteristic depending on certain circumstance that will be explained later.
e.g: حَمَلَ، كُتِبَ ، اَلسَا خِدُونَ

The madd letter (long vowel) alif [ا] takes the quality of the letter before it. If it is heavy, the alif will be pronounced with Tafkheem and if light it is pronounced with Tarqeeq.
e.g: كَانَ ، قَالَ

Posts in the series....

  1. The Moon and Sun Letters (حُرُوفُ القَمَرٍِيَّة و الشَّمسِيَّة)
  2. Hamzatul Wasl – Connecting Hamzah [ ٱ ]
  3. Tafkheem and Tarqeeq
  4. Prostration of Recitation
  5. Saying the Name of Allah (Al-Basmalah)
  6. Seeking refuge with Allah (Al-Istiaadha)
  7. Sifaat associated with each of the Arabic letters.
  8. Explanation of the Sifaat (Characteritistic) of the Arabic letters
  9. Sifaat – Characteristics of the Arabic letters
  10. Exact point of articulation of the Arabic letters
  11. The 17 Specific Makhraj
  12. The five points of articulation
  13. Tajweed - Introduction
  14. Tajweed ul Quran, So far so good
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Prostration of Recitation

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah that when, the son of Adam recites the Ayah of Sajdah (prostration) and then falls down in prostration, the Satan goes into seclusion and weeps and says: Alas, and in the narration of Abu Kuraib the words are: Woe unto me, the son of Adam was commanded to prostrate, and he prostrated and Paradise was entitled to him and I was commanded to prostrate, but I refused and am doomed to Hell.
(Hadith Muslim Book 1, Hadith 144)

Prostration of Recitation otherwise known as Sujud Tilawah is required when one comes up to the ayah in the Quran that indicates prostration. The symbol in the Quran that indicates this usually looks like this  at the end of the ayah. This prostration of Tilawah is for both the one reading and the one listening. There are fourteen places of prostration in the Quran as follows:

  1. Surah Al-A’raf – The Heights (Q7:206): Surely, those who are with your Lord (angels) are never too proud to perform acts of worship to Him, but they glorify His Praise and prostrate themselves before Him.
  2. Surah Ar – Ra’d – The Thunder (Q13:15): And unto Allah (Alone) falls in prostration whoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and in the afternoons.
  3. Surah An-Nahl – The Bee(Q16:49):And to Allah prostrate all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, of the moving (living) creatures and the angels, and they are not proud [i.e. they worship their Lord (Allah) with humility].
  4. Surah Al-Israa’ – The night Journey(Q17:109):And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.
  5. Surah Maryam – Mary(Q19:58): Those were they unto whom Allah bestowed His Grace from among the Prophets, of the offspring of Adam, and of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nuh (Noah), and of the offspring of Ibrahim (Abraham) and Israel, and from among those whom We guided and chose. When the Verses of the Most Gracious (Allah) were recited unto them, they fell down prostrate and weeping.
  6. Surah Al-Hajj – The Pilgrimage(Q22:18):See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and Ad-Dawabb [moving (living) creatures, beasts], and many of mankind prostrate themselves to Allah. But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified. And whomsoever Allah disgraces, none can honour him. Verily, Allah does what He wills.
  7. Surah Al-Hajj – The Pilgrimage(Q22:77): O you who have believed! Bow down, and prostrate yourselves, and worship your Lord and do good that you may be successful.
  8. Surah Al-Furqan – The Criterion(Q25:60):And when it is said to them: “Prostrate yourselves to the Most Gracious (Allah)! they say: “And what is the Most Gracious? Shall we fall down in prostration to that which you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) command us?” And it increases in them only aversion.
  9. Surah An-Naml – The Ants(Q27: 25-26): [As Shaitan (Satan) has barred them from Allah’s Way] so they do not worship (prostrate themselves before) Allah, Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knows what you conceal and what you reveal. [Tafsir At-Tabari]. Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Lord of the Supreme Throne!
  10. Surah As-Sajdah – The prostration (Q32:15): Only those believe in Our Ayat (proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), who, when they are reminded of them, fall down prostrate, and glorify the Praises of their Lord, and they are not proud.
  11. Surah Fussilat – Explained in details (Q41:37-38): And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate yourselves not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them, if you (really) worship Him. But if they are too proud (to do so), then there are those who are with your Lord (angels) glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired.
  12. Surah An-Najm – The Star (Q53:62): So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him (Alone).
  13. Surah  Al-Inshiqaq – The Splitting Asunder(Q84:21): And when the Qur’an is recited to them, they fall not prostrate.
  14. Surah Al-‘Alaq – The Clot(Q96:19):Nay! (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم)! Do not obey him (Abu Jahl). Fall prostrate and draw near to Allah!

What to say in sujud Tilawah:

سَجَدَ وَجْهِي لِلّذِي خَلَقَهُ وَصَوّرَهُ وَشَقّ سَمْعَهُ وَبَصَرَهُ بِحَولِهِ وَقُوّتِهِ تَبَارَكَ اللهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِين
My face fell prostrate before He who created it and brought forth its faculties of hearing and seeing by his might and power. So blessed is Allah, the best to create.


اللّهُمّ اكْتُبْ لِي بِهَا عِنْدَكَ أَخْرًا ، وَضَعْ عَنِّي بِهَا وِزْرًا ، وَاجْعَلَهَا لِي عِنْدَكَ ذُخْرًا ، وَتَقَبّلَهَا مِنِّي كَمَا تَقَبّلْتَهَا مِنْ عَبْدِكَ دَاود

 O Allah, record for me a reward for this (prostration), and remove from me a sin. Save it for me and accept it from me just as You had accepted it from your servant, Dawood.

The reference for the Tasbeeh of Tilawah is the commonly available book of dua called fortification of the Muslim or Husnul Muslim.

Posts in the series....

  1. The Moon and Sun Letters (حُرُوفُ القَمَرٍِيَّة و الشَّمسِيَّة)
  2. Hamzatul Wasl – Connecting Hamzah [ ٱ ]
  3. Tafkheem and Tarqeeq
  4. Prostration of Recitation
  5. Saying the Name of Allah (Al-Basmalah)
  6. Seeking refuge with Allah (Al-Istiaadha)
  7. Sifaat associated with each of the Arabic letters.
  8. Explanation of the Sifaat (Characteritistic) of the Arabic letters
  9. Sifaat – Characteristics of the Arabic letters
  10. Exact point of articulation of the Arabic letters
  11. The 17 Specific Makhraj
  12. The five points of articulation
  13. Tajweed - Introduction
  14. Tajweed ul Quran, So far so good
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Saying the Name of Allah (Al-Basmalah)

اَلْبَسْمَلَة
(Al-Basmalah)

Every surah of the Quran starts with Al-Basmalah, with the exception of Surah at-Tawbah, Q9. To say Al-Basmalah is to say:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرّحَمٰنِ الرّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful

After seeking refuge in Allah by saying Al-Istiaadha, we then recite Al-Basmalah at the beginning of all the Surah except for Surah At-Tawbah, which does not begin with Al-Basmalah in the Quran. However, one can say Al-Basmalah in the middle of this Surah just as any of the other Surahs if one wishes to.

Continue reading “Saying the Name of Allah (Al-Basmalah)”

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Seeking refuge with Allah (Al-Istiaadha)

Reciting the Quran, even as a learner is an act of worship and we need to observe certain etiquettes before dipping into the actual reading of the Quran, some of which are as follows:

  1. Being clean in body and clothing and in the state of wudu (ablution) is highly recommended.
  2. Having the correct intention of it being an act of worship for the pleasure of Allah only.
  3. Being in a state of humility and attentiveness of the mind.
  4. Seeking refuge with Allah and saying the Basmalah.

Continue reading “Seeking refuge with Allah (Al-Istiaadha)”

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Sifaat associated with each of the Arabic letters.

The previous post explains each of the sifah and this post shows the Arabic letters and the sifaat (characteristics) associated with each of them. The letter Alif [ا] is always a vowel or Madd letter, alif saakin preceded by a fathah. The letters waw [و]  and yaa [ي]  serve two purposes as Madd letters, waaw saakin preceded by dhammah and yaa saakin preceded by Kasrah. They also serve as consonants just like all the other letters.

Sifaat

ب Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Strength
(As-Shiddah)
الشّدّة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Fluency
(Al-Idhlaaq)
الإذلاق
Vibration
(Al-Qalqalah)
القلقلة
 ت Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Strength
(As-Shiddah)
الشّدّة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
 ث Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
ج Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Strength
(As-Shiddah)
الشّدّة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Vibration
(Al-Qalqalah)
القلقلة
ح Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
خ Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Elevation
(Al-Istia’la)
الإستعلاء
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
د Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Strength
(As-Shiddah)
الشّدّة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Vibration
(Al-Qalqalah)
القلقلة
 ذ Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
ر Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Moderation
(At-Tawasut)
التّوسط
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Fluency
(Al-Idhlaaq)
الإذلاق
Inclination
(Al-Inhiraaf)
الإنحراف
Repitition
(At-Takreer)
التّكرير
 ز Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Whistling
(As-Safeer)
الصّفير
س Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Whistling
(As-Safeer)
الصّفير
 ش Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Diffusion
(At-Tafashshii)
التّفشِّي
ص Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Elevation
(Al-Istia’la)
الإستعلاء
Closing
(Al-Itibaaq)
الأطباق
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Whistling
(As-Safeer)
الصّفير
ض Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Elevation
(Al-Istia’la)
الإستعلاء
Closing
(Al-Itibaaq)
الأطباق
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Elongation
(Al-Istitaalah)
الإستطالة
ط Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Strength
(As-Shiddah)
الشّدّة
Elevation
(Al-Istia’la)
الإستعلاء
Closing
(Al-Itibaaq)
الأطباق
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Vibration
(Al-Qalqalah)
القلقلة
ظ Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Elevation
(Al-Istia’la)
الإستعلاء
Closing
(Al-Itibaaq)
الأطباق
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
ع Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Moderation
(At-Tawasut)
التّوسط
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
غ Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Elevation
(Al-Istia’la)
الإستعلاء
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
ف Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Fluency
(Al-Idhlaaq)
الإذلاق
ق Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Strength
(As-Shiddah)
الشّدّة
Elevation
(Al-Istia’la)
الإستعلاء
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Vibration
(Al-Qalqalah)
القلقلة
ك Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Strength
(As-Shiddah)
الشّدّة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
ل Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Moderation
(At-Tawasut)
التّوسط
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Fluency
(Al-Idhlaaq)
الإذلاق
Inclination
(Al-Inhiraaf)
الإنحراف
م Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Moderation
(At-Tawasut)
التّوسط
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Fluency
(Al-Idhlaaq)
الإذلاق
Ghunnah
(Al-Ghunnah)
الغنّة
 ن Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Moderation
(At-Tawasut)
التّوسط
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Fluency
(Al-Idhlaaq)
الإذلاق
Ghunnah
(Al-Ghunnah)
الغنّة
ه Whispering
(Al-Hams)
الهمس
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
َو ْ Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Ease
(Al- Leen)
اللِّين
َي ْ Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Weakness
(Ar-Rikhaawah)
الرِّخاوة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات
Ease
(Al- Leen)
اللِّين
ء Audibility
(Al-Jahr)
الجهر
Strength
(As-Shiddah)
الشّدّة
Lowness
(Al-Istifaal)
الإستفال
Opening
(Al-Infitaah)
الإنفتاح
Restraint
(Al- Ismaat)
الإصمات

Posts in the series....

  1. The Moon and Sun Letters (حُرُوفُ القَمَرٍِيَّة و الشَّمسِيَّة)
  2. Hamzatul Wasl – Connecting Hamzah [ ٱ ]
  3. Tafkheem and Tarqeeq
  4. Prostration of Recitation
  5. Saying the Name of Allah (Al-Basmalah)
  6. Seeking refuge with Allah (Al-Istiaadha)
  7. Sifaat associated with each of the Arabic letters.
  8. Explanation of the Sifaat (Characteritistic) of the Arabic letters
  9. Sifaat – Characteristics of the Arabic letters
  10. Exact point of articulation of the Arabic letters
  11. The 17 Specific Makhraj
  12. The five points of articulation
  13. Tajweed - Introduction
  14. Tajweed ul Quran, So far so good
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Explanation of the Sifaat (Characteritistic) of the Arabic letters

Sifaat

Sifaat

Opposite

1 الشّدّة

The Strength (As-Shiddah)

Trapping the flow of sound, strengthening the complete reliance on the makhraj (point of articulation), associated with the letters in this phrase:
أجد قط بكت

التّوسط

Moderation(At-Tawasut)

In between the strength and the weakness is the moderation, where the sound emerges but does not flow from the point of articulation associated with letters in this phrase:
لن عمر

الرِّخاوة

The Weakness (Ar-Rikhaawah)

A flow of sound during pronunciation, weaking the reliance on Makhraj(point of articulation) associated with all the letters not included in “The Strength (As-Shiddah)” and “Moderation(At-Tawasut)”.

2 الهمس

The Whispers (Al-Hams)

A flow of breath (air) during pronunciation due to weakness in the reliance on the makhraj (point of articulation)associated with letters in this phrase:
فحثه شخص سكت

الجهر

The Audible (Al-Jahr)

The trapping of the flow of breath (air ) due to heavy dependence on the makhraj (point of articulation) associated with all the letters not in “The Whispers (Al-Hams)”.

3 الإستعلاء

The Elevation (Al-Istia’la)

Raising the tongue to the roof of the mouth during articulation, associated with the letters in this phrase:
خص ضغط قظ

الإستفال

The Lowering (Al-Istifaal)

Lowering the tongue to the floor of the mouth during articulation associated with all the letters not in “The Elevation (Al-Istia’la)”.

4 الإطباق

The Closing (Al-Itibaaq)

The meeting of the tongue and what is opposite it from the roof of the mouth during articulation, associated with the letters:
ظ ط ص ض

الإنفتاح

The Opening (Al-Infitaah)

The separation of the tongue from the roof of the mouth during articulation, associated with all the letters not included in “The Closing (Al-Itibaaq)”.

5 الإذلاق

The Fluency (Al-Idhlaaq)

The easy flowing of the letters فر من لبfrom the tip of the tongue and lips. How ever this sifah and its opposite is not included in the study of Tajweed but included for completeness.

الإصمات

The Restraint (Al- Ismaat)

The emergence of the remaining letters not included in “The Fluency (Al-Idhlaaq” from inside of the mouth and throat

Sifaat with no opposite

1 الصّفير

The Whistling (As-Safeer)

A sound emerging between the tip of the tongue and the upper central incisors which resembles the sound of a bird, associated with ص س ز. It is usually like a buzzing sound with ز.

2 القلقلة

The Vibration (Al-Qalqalah)

The vibration of the makhraj(point of articulation) with the emergence of the letter when it has sukoon ( ْ) associated with letters in this phrase:
قطب جد

3 اللِّين

The Ease (Al- Leen)

This is pronunciation without exertion or difficulty. It is associated with letters و and ى with saakin ( ْ ) preceded by fathah( َ ).

4 الإنحراف

The Drifting (Al-Inhiraaf)

The inclination of the letter after its articulation from the makhraj towards another makhraj associated with ل and ر.
ل inclines towards the tip of the tongue and
ر inclines towards the makhraj of ل.

5 التّكرير

The Repetition (At-Takreer)

This is the natural tendency to vibrate or roll the tongue during articulation of the letter ر. However this is to be avoided for correct pronunciation by controlling the tongue and not relaxing it.

6 التّفشِّي

The Diffusion (At-Tafashshii)

The spreading of air throughout the mouth during articulation of the letter ش

7 الإستطالة

The Elongation (Al- Istitaalah)

This is the extension of the sound over the entire edge of the tongue from front to back during articulation, associated with letter ض .

8 الغنّة

The Nasalisation(Al-Ghunnah)

This is the sound emitted from the nose, an inherent characteristics of letters ن and م when accompanied by Sookun or shaddah. Gunnah emerges from the nose when the flow of sound is blocked in the mouth, by the tongue with ن and by the lips with م.

Posts in the series....

  1. The Moon and Sun Letters (حُرُوفُ القَمَرٍِيَّة و الشَّمسِيَّة)
  2. Hamzatul Wasl – Connecting Hamzah [ ٱ ]
  3. Tafkheem and Tarqeeq
  4. Prostration of Recitation
  5. Saying the Name of Allah (Al-Basmalah)
  6. Seeking refuge with Allah (Al-Istiaadha)
  7. Sifaat associated with each of the Arabic letters.
  8. Explanation of the Sifaat (Characteritistic) of the Arabic letters
  9. Sifaat – Characteristics of the Arabic letters
  10. Exact point of articulation of the Arabic letters
  11. The 17 Specific Makhraj
  12. The five points of articulation
  13. Tajweed - Introduction
  14. Tajweed ul Quran, So far so good
Share