Explanation of the Sifaat (Characteritistic) of the Arabic letters

Sifaat

Sifaat

Opposite

1 الشّدّة

The Strength (As-Shiddah)

Trapping the flow of sound, strengthening the complete reliance on the makhraj (point of articulation), associated with the letters in this phrase:
أجد قط بكت

التّوسط

Moderation(At-Tawasut)

In between the strength and the weakness is the moderation, where the sound emerges but does not flow from the point of articulation associated with letters in this phrase:
لن عمر

الرِّخاوة

The Weakness (Ar-Rikhaawah)

A flow of sound during pronunciation, weaking the reliance on Makhraj(point of articulation) associated with all the letters not included in “The Strength (As-Shiddah)” and “Moderation(At-Tawasut)”.

2 الهمس

The Whispers (Al-Hams)

A flow of breath (air) during pronunciation due to weakness in the reliance on the makhraj (point of articulation)associated with letters in this phrase:
فحثه شخص سكت

الجهر

The Audible (Al-Jahr)

The trapping of the flow of breath (air ) due to heavy dependence on the makhraj (point of articulation) associated with all the letters not in “The Whispers (Al-Hams)”.

3 الإستعلاء

The Elevation (Al-Istia’la)

Raising the tongue to the roof of the mouth during articulation, associated with the letters in this phrase:
خص ضغط قظ

الإستفال

The Lowering (Al-Istifaal)

Lowering the tongue to the floor of the mouth during articulation associated with all the letters not in “The Elevation (Al-Istia’la)”.

4 الإطباق

The Closing (Al-Itibaaq)

The meeting of the tongue and what is opposite it from the roof of the mouth during articulation, associated with the letters:
ظ ط ص ض

الإنفتاح

The Opening (Al-Infitaah)

The separation of the tongue from the roof of the mouth during articulation, associated with all the letters not included in “The Closing (Al-Itibaaq)”.

5 الإذلاق

The Fluency (Al-Idhlaaq)

The easy flowing of the letters فر من لبfrom the tip of the tongue and lips. How ever this sifah and its opposite is not included in the study of Tajweed but included for completeness.

الإصمات

The Restraint (Al- Ismaat)

The emergence of the remaining letters not included in “The Fluency (Al-Idhlaaq” from inside of the mouth and throat

Sifaat with no opposite

1 الصّفير

The Whistling (As-Safeer)

A sound emerging between the tip of the tongue and the upper central incisors which resembles the sound of a bird, associated with ص س ز. It is usually like a buzzing sound with ز.

2 القلقلة

The Vibration (Al-Qalqalah)

The vibration of the makhraj(point of articulation) with the emergence of the letter when it has sukoon ( ْ) associated with letters in this phrase:
قطب جد

3 اللِّين

The Ease (Al- Leen)

This is pronunciation without exertion or difficulty. It is associated with letters و and ى with saakin ( ْ ) preceded by fathah( َ ).

4 الإنحراف

The Drifting (Al-Inhiraaf)

The inclination of the letter after its articulation from the makhraj towards another makhraj associated with ل and ر.
ل inclines towards the tip of the tongue and
ر inclines towards the makhraj of ل.

5 التّكرير

The Repetition (At-Takreer)

This is the natural tendency to vibrate or roll the tongue during articulation of the letter ر. However this is to be avoided for correct pronunciation by controlling the tongue and not relaxing it.

6 التّفشِّي

The Diffusion (At-Tafashshii)

The spreading of air throughout the mouth during articulation of the letter ش

7 الإستطالة

The Elongation (Al- Istitaalah)

This is the extension of the sound over the entire edge of the tongue from front to back during articulation, associated with letter ض .

8 الغنّة

The Nasalisation(Al-Ghunnah)

This is the sound emitted from the nose, an inherent characteristics of letters ن and م when accompanied by Sookun or shaddah. Gunnah emerges from the nose when the flow of sound is blocked in the mouth, by the tongue with ن and by the lips with م.

Posts in the series....

  1. The Moon and Sun Letters (حُرُوفُ القَمَرٍِيَّة و الشَّمسِيَّة)
  2. Hamzatul Wasl – Connecting Hamzah [ ٱ ]
  3. Tafkheem and Tarqeeq
  4. Prostration of Recitation
  5. Saying the Name of Allah (Al-Basmalah)
  6. Seeking refuge with Allah (Al-Istiaadha)
  7. Sifaat associated with each of the Arabic letters.
  8. Explanation of the Sifaat (Characteritistic) of the Arabic letters
  9. Sifaat – Characteristics of the Arabic letters
  10. Exact point of articulation of the Arabic letters
  11. The 17 Specific Makhraj
  12. The five points of articulation
  13. Tajweed - Introduction
  14. Tajweed ul Quran, So far so good